[Spring Colud Netflix] 11 Config:分布式配置中心

分布式配置中心

Posted by Mr.Vincent on 2019-07-05
Estimated Reading Time 11 Minutes
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在分布式系统中,由于服务数量巨多,为了方便服务配置文件统一管理,实时更新,所以需要分布式配置中心组件。在 Spring Cloud 中,有分布式配置中心组件 Spring Cloud Config ,它支持配置服务放在配置服务的内存中(即本地),也支持放在远程 Git 仓库中。在 Spring Cloud Config 组件中,分两个角色,一是 Config Server,二是 Config Client。

分布式配置中心服务端

概述

创建一个工程名为 hello-spring-cloud-config 的项目,pom.xml 配置文件如下:

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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

<parent>
<groupId>com.example</groupId>
<artifactId>hello-spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId>
<version>1.0.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
<relativePath>../hello-spring-cloud-dependencies/pom.xml</relativePath>
</parent>

<artifactId>hello-spring-cloud-config</artifactId>
<packaging>jar</packaging>

<name>hello-spring-cloud-config</name>
<url>http://wvincen.gitee.io</url>
<inceptionYear>2019-Now</inceptionYear>

<dependencies>
<!-- Spring Boot Begin -->
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-tomcat</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-actuator</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
<scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
<!-- Spring Boot End -->

<!-- Spring Cloud Begin -->
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-cloud-config-server</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-netflix-eureka-server</artifactId>
</dependency>
<!-- Spring Cloud End -->
</dependencies>

<build>
<plugins>
<plugin>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
<configuration>
<mainClass>com.example.hello.spring.cloud.config.ConfigApplication</mainClass>
</configuration>
</plugin>
</plugins>
</build>
</project>

主要增加了 spring-cloud-config-server 依赖

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<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-cloud-config-server</artifactId>
</dependency>

Application

通过 @EnableConfigServer 注解,开启配置服务器功能

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package com.funtl.hello.spring.cloud.config;

import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.cloud.config.server.EnableConfigServer;
import org.springframework.cloud.netflix.eureka.EnableEurekaClient;

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableConfigServer
@EnableEurekaClient
public class ConfigApplication {
public static void main(String[] args) {
SpringApplication.run(ConfigApplication.class, args);
}
}

application.yml

增加 Config 相关配置,并设置端口号为:8888

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spring:
application:
name: hello-spring-cloud-config
cloud:
config:
label: master
server:
git:
uri: https://github.com/topsale/spring-cloud-config
search-paths: respo
username:
password:

server:
port: 8888

eureka:
client:
serviceUrl:
defaultZone: http://localhost:8761/eureka/

相关配置说明,如下:

  • spring.cloud.config.label1:配置仓库的分支
  • spring.cloud.config.server.git.uri:配置 Git 仓库地址(GitHub、GitLab、码云 …)
  • spring.cloud.config.server.git.search-paths:配置仓库路径(存放配置文件的目录)
  • spring.cloud.config.server.git.username:访问 Git 仓库的账号
  • spring.cloud.config.server.git.password:访问 Git 仓库的密码

注意事项:

  • 如果使用 GitLab 作为仓库的话,git.uri 需要在结尾加上 .gitGitHub 则不用

测试

浏览器端访问:http://localhost:8888/config-client/dev/master ,显示如下:

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<Environment> 
<name>config-client</name>
<profiles>
<profiles>dev</profiles>
</profiles>
<label>master</label>
<version>9646007f931753d7e96a6dcc9ae34838897a91df</version>
<state/>
<propertySources>
<propertySources>
<name>https://github.com/topsale/spring-cloud-config/respo/config-client-dev.yml</name>
<source>
<foo>foo version 1</foo>
<demo.message>Hello Spring Config</demo.message>
</source>
</propertySources>
</propertySources>
</Environment>

证明配置服务中心可以从远程程序获取配置信息

附:HTTP 请求地址和资源文件映射

分布式配置中心客户端

概述

创建一个工程名为 hello-spring-cloud-config-client 的项目,pom.xml 文件配置如下:

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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

<parent>
<groupId>com.funtl</groupId>
<artifactId>hello-spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId>
<version>1.0.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
<relativePath>../hello-spring-cloud-dependencies/pom.xml</relativePath>
</parent>

<artifactId>hello-spring-cloud-config-client</artifactId>
<packaging>jar</packaging>

<name>hello-spring-cloud-config-client</name>
<url>http://www.funtl.com</url>
<inceptionYear>2018-Now</inceptionYear>

<dependencies>
<!-- Spring Boot Begin -->
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-tomcat</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-actuator</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
<scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
<!-- Spring Boot End -->

<!-- Spring Cloud Begin -->
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-config</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-netflix-eureka-server</artifactId>
</dependency>
<!-- Spring Cloud End -->
</dependencies>

<build>
<plugins>
<plugin>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
<configuration>
<mainClass>com.funtl.hello.spring.cloud.config.client.ConfigClientApplication</mainClass>
</configuration>
</plugin>
</plugins>
</build>
</project>

主要增加了 spring-cloud-starter-config 依赖

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<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-config</artifactId>
</dependency>

Application

入口类没有需要特殊处理的地方,代码如下:

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package com.funtl.hello.spring.cloud.config.client;

import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.cloud.client.discovery.EnableDiscoveryClient;

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableDiscoveryClient
public class ConfigClientApplication {
public static void main(String[] args) {
SpringApplication.run(ConfigClientApplication.class, args);
}
}

application.yml

增加 Config Client 相关配置,并设置端口号为:8889

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spring:
application:
name: hello-spring-cloud-config-client
cloud:
config:
uri: http://localhost:8888
name: config-client
label: master
profile: dev

server:
port: 8889

eureka:
client:
serviceUrl:
defaultZone: http://localhost:8761/eureka/

相关配置说明,如下:

  • spring.cloud.config.uri:配置服务中心的网址

  • spring.cloud.config.name:配置文件名称的前缀

  • spring.cloud.config.label:配置仓库的分支

  • spring.cloud.config.profile:配置文件的环境标识

    • dev:表示开发环境
    • test:表示测试环境
    • prod:表示生产环境
  • 配置服务器的默认端口为 8888,如果修改了默认端口,则客户端项目就不能在 application.ymlapplication.properties 中配置 spring.cloud.config.uri,必须在 bootstrap.yml 或是 bootstrap.properties 中配置,原因是 bootstrap 开头的配置文件会被优先加载和配置,切记。

创建测试用 Controller

我们创建一个 Controller 来测试一下通过远程仓库的配置文件注入 foo 属性

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package com.funtl.hello.spring.cloud.config.client.controller;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Value;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMethod;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;

@RestController
public class TestConfigController {

@Value("${foo}")
private String foo;

@RequestMapping(value = "/hi", method = RequestMethod.GET)
public String hi() {
return foo;
}
}

一般情况下,能够正常启动服务就说明注入是成功的。

测试访问

浏览器端访问:http://localhost:8889/hi ,显示如下:

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foo version 1

附:开启 Spring Boot Profile

我们在做项目开发的时候,生产环境和测试环境的一些配置可能会不一样,有时候一些功能也可能会不一样,所以我们可能会在上线的时候手工修改这些配置信息。但是 Spring 中为我们提供了 Profile 这个功能。我们只需要在启动的时候添加一个虚拟机参数,激活自己环境所要用的 Profile 就可以了。

操作起来很简单,只需要为不同的环境编写专门的配置文件,如:application-dev.ymlapplication-prod.yml, 启动项目时只需要增加一个命令参数 --spring.profiles.active=环境配置 即可,启动命令如下:

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java -jar hello-spring-cloud-web-admin-feign-1.0.0-SNAPSHOT.jar --spring.profiles.active=prod

案例源码:https://github.com/V-Vincen/hello-spring-cloud


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